Abstract for: Key Enablers and Barriers for a Climate Neutral Energy System in the Netherlands in 2050

The Netherlands aims to have a climate neutral energy system in 2050. This is challenging because abundant low-cost natural gas has led to a relatively high energy intensity of its economy as well as vast accumulation of fossil assets. Earlier studies showed that an energy system cannot be seen independently from other systems including finance, innovation, politics, policies, law, and behavior. To explore key enablers and barriers for the Dutch energy system, this study therefore adopted a participative modelling approach with participants with expertise in these different systems. We found that understanding the interrelations between the systems is crucial for avoiding policy resistance and other unintended consequences of policies. We show how public engagement proves to be crucial when considering the energy transition from a holistic perspective and provide recommendations for achieving effective climate policies.