Abstract for: Automotive battery packs at the crossroads: modelling the impact of second life choices

Electric vehicles (VE) offer a promising alternative for reducing carbon emissions. How-ever, over the years, the stock of discarded batteries will increase dramatically if noaction is taken to reuse or recycle them for use. With the help of Systems Dynamics(DS), we modeled the EV end-of-life (EOL) battery stock for the UK by 2050, DS allowsintegration of scenarios under alternative policy conditions. In the business as usual(BAU) scenario, the battery stock can reach 40 million units, although about 1% of thebatteries go to the second use, they are capable of storing 7GWh of energy, using themin power generation sources solar and wind power (considered intermittent). Scenario1, which values battery recycling, estimates about 20 million batteries being recycled.Scenario 2, on the other hand, results in a balance between recycling and the seconduse of the EOL battery, with the batteries being able to store 240GWh of energy inthe second use. The main contribution of the work is the ability to identify alternativeways to properly manage an EOL battery, taking into account long-term uncertaintiesand political structures. In addition, the DS model can be replicated to other countriesor regions, with only minor changes in structure and parameters.