Abstract for:Balanced Upstream and Downstream Energy Security within the constraints of affordability, security and sustainability for Arctic communities
In unconnected Arctic areas 80% of the communities depends on diesel as primary energy source. Beside the negative impact on the climate the use of diesel has an impact on the mid-term energy security. The impact is created by the transportation of diesel, since within a short transportation window due to seasonal conditions the fuel for the next year has to be shipped to the community. This transportation window is heavily influenced by the harsh weather conditions - sea ways have to be open for barges or frozen rivers have to be stable enough to carry trucks.
A transition from fossil fuel to renewables can help to solve several of the issues related to burning fossil fuels such as particular matter (PM), CO2 emission and fuel delivery. Another important reason for the transition towards renewables is to get independent of imported energy sources and transportation of fossil fuels to the communities. This is described by the upstream energy security, which accounts for risk involved in all processes before the electricity generation. This includes fuel delivery, spear part delivery and work force. Downstream energy security deals with the processes after electricity generation, the electricity distribution process.