Abstract for: To Radicalize or to Deradicalize? Is that the Question?

Radicalization and deradicalization are deeply uncertain dynamic processes. Exploring and analyzing many plausible futures and assessing the robustness of policies to reinforce desirable evolutions seem more useful for such processes than trying to predict their precise development over time and optimize the associated policy response. This paper illustrates how the combination of System Dynamics Modeling and Exploratory Modeling and Analysis could be helpful in that respect for deeply uncertain dynamic issues as de/radicalization processes. The generic SD model about radical and non-radical activism used first is methodologically relevant because it generates clear bifurcations. This generic model could be seen as a plausible dynamic theory about how activism may become more/less radical. Specific instances of this generic model are subsequently used to shed light on particular de/radicalization processes - such as animal rights activism - and successful actions to fight radicalization. Finally, SD teaching and testing cases based on these models are provided in the appendix.