Black Lands is an agricultural area in the Republic of Kalmykia (Russia). Previous agricultural practices under administrative planning economy during 1960s-1980s resulted in land desertification, loss of agricultural productivity, and lowered biodiversity in the area. Saiga antelope as an element of biodiversity in the area has been affected by land use management and poaching. Transition to market economy followed by livestock starvation due to fodder shortages, had a positive impact on Black Lands pastures and saiga population. It resulted in revival of livestock numbers while agricultural practices remained unchanged and poaching intensified. The aim of the paper is to investigate existing agricultural practices and trends to forecast the regionís future under different scenarios using systems analysis methods. The research showed that the desire to maximize economic benefits leads to overgrazing and pastures destruction and hence, loss of agricultural productivity. Sustainability can be achieved by changed land uses; limiting livestock population and preserving pastures, implementing effective mechanisms against saiga poaching and providing the local population with diverse economic activities to contribute to their incomes.