The possible diffusion of plant-derived vaccine (PDV) biotechnology in developing countries offers an interesting potential substitute to existing more expensive vaccine technology currently available on the market. This paper is concerned with the potential impact that the introduction of such a technology could have on the cost of immunization, and also, more broadly on the incidence of hepatitis B cases on India’s population overtime. The objective of the paper is to look at the hypothetical issues of a PDV diffusion using a system dynamics (SD) model. Some illustrative results are presented to show the interaction between infection rates, mortality rates, and immunization costs. In spite of promising features, such as much lower production costs, institutional hurdles to a widespread diffusion of the technology still need to be overcome.