This paper analyzes the design and functionality of the nuclear reactor, and the human failures on on-line operations, which had led to the accident at the Chernobyl power plant, In April 26, 1986. The paper finds that the combination of the Chernobyl-reactor characteristics and “freak infringements” of safety rules did cause the accident. The former aspect is due to the process of graphite-moderated uranium fission, which tends to increase in reactivity in the case of a malfunction or faulty operation. The latter is caused by the effect that infringements which did not cause accidents in the past lead to more violation of safety rules in the future. Transferred to organizational improvement programs, a corporation has to redesign its structure in the vein that failures cannot spread quickly (i.e. loosely coupled system elements), and to generate an atmosphere in order to encourage and utilize the full benefits of employees’ participation.